Ashley Mclaren is a criminologist who has recently completed her Master’s thesis. Tara spoke to her about unconscious bias but Ashley has also been influenced by Dr. Karen Graham who has worked on the ‘School to Prison Pipeline’.
Ashley’s thesis is entitled, ‘Black and Blue – an exploration of the work and identity as a civic shield. ‘ She concentrates on the issues of black men versus the police, particularly the use of stop and search from black men’s perspective. Ashley felt there was a lot of research on the numbers of stop and search but not really any on how the black men felt about how they were being treated. There is also some very interesting work around how ethnic minorities are likely to behave when stopped by the police. However, this was US research and all hypothetical – Ashley wanted to see if it applied to the UK and also if it was borne out in reality. So she interviewed 8 black men from 18 – 40 years old. Ashley describes what she found out.
How schools prepare kids for prison
Ashley heard Dr. Karen Graham speak as a guest lecturer on her course. She spoke about how schools are inadvertently preparing ethnic minority and other marginalised kids for prison life.
“It was interesting to see the correlation between schools and what was happening in prison life.”
In the US, 50% of men in prison are black compared with 20% in the population while in the UK, the situation is actually worse – 1 in 10 prisoners are black compared with 2.8% of the population. This is alongside the fact that the highest rates of exclusion in the UK are amongst Gypsy, Romany, Traveller or Irish heritage and Black Caribbean students are more than three times more likely to be permanently excluded.
Some of the themes which emerged in Ashley’s research included:
Family environment – if all you see is crime there is an increased chance you will go into that world (although some react against it of course)
Arbitrary school practices – e.g. having to do PE in silence
Experience of violence – from parents or teachers
Segregation – educational exclusions, school exclusion and physical isolation
Tara Elie welcomes Emma Brown back shortly after her previous visit to answer some questions about autism from podcast listeners.
Emma is a Practice Development Coach working in Social Care with clients who have learning disabilities and/or Autism. The answers to the questions posed are equally applicable to those in mainstream settings who come into contact with children with learning disabilities and/or Autism.
Emma works with the teams who support people with learning disabilities in their homes, to help them to live as independently as possible. She provides training and coaching for the teams.
The Classroom Environment Emma begins with practical tips about the use of classroom space for teachers who work with autistic children. These include the fact that adults are part of the classroom environment themselves and aspects of our classrooms such as lighting are not usually considered – but they can have a dramatic influence on the learning experience for children on the Autism Spectrum.
Listener Questions Glenn Martin from Manor School asks: As a classroom teacher how can we support students on the Autism spectrum to be in mainstream education?
Jonathon Piltcher from Brompton Academy asks: How can we encourage creativity and unlock it when some autistic children don’t think they can be or have been told they can’t?
Restorative Practice for those with Autism
Emma shares some remarkable insights in this area including the concept that the best restorative conversations are often with the staff, rather than with the students.
Finally, Tara explains the idea of Social Stories which can help those with ASD enormously.
This week, Paul speaks to Elaine Halligan. The London director of The Parent Practice, Elaine has been a parenting facilitator since 2006, teaching parents in the Wimbledon and Clapham centres.
She works in schools and nurseries, coordinates our corporate and business seminar programme and works with special educational needs such as dyslexia, dyspraxia and dyscalculia.
Elaine came into parenting thinking she should instinctively know how to parent. She sought parenting advice when she felt guilty when she thought she had done a ‘bad job’ and ashamed when she saw someone else parenting the way she wished she could. Being a parent is the most demanding job she has ever done but equally it is a role filled with joy.
Elaine has helped hundreds of families to understand their child’s unique temperament and motivates parents to bring out the best in children and teenagers to ensure they have the opportunity to lead fulfilling lives and be able to cope with life’s knocks.
One of the most powerful aspects of the interview with Elaine is when she tells the remarkable and shocking story of her own son’s experience in education. From the moment he entered nursery school, he had difficulties. Elaine had to move him between private and state schools as well as special school settings until finally finding a school which could give him what he needed. He was initially labelled as ‘the naughty one’ and it was a long time before Elaine realised that her son was not the problem – he hadproblems. He was ‘hard wired’ to get attention from people, which led to some very difficult situation. It was these experiences which led Elaine to leave her job and devote her time and talents to helping her son and his teachers – and then to helping other parents.
“If you have a child who is different, you are judged.”
Elaine also had to cope with a plethora of bewildering diagnoses. She was told her son had all kinds of different conditions:
Attention Deficit Disorder
Sensory Integration Dysfunction
Oppositional Defiance Disorder
Pathological Demand Avoidance
Pragmatic Semantic Language Disorder
What can teachers do to help?
Eliane explains one of the concepts she thinks is useful in helping children to raise their self esteem – which is based on an understanding of a function of the brain referred to as the Reticular Activating System.
“Once you start looking for the positives, you’ll find them.”
The RAS searches for what you are focussing on. So, when you buy a new car, you see lots of the same model each time you go out. Similarly, if you start actively looking for the positive in learners, you suddenly find you see it all the time. The brain filters out what it sees as unimportant to you. Humans are hard-wired to look for mistakes and point them out but we can subvert this by training yourself to look for positive things.
Ruth McKay is Headteacher at Portobello High School, a large comprehensive in the east of Edinburgh.
Ruth began her career as an English teacher and quickly moved into Guidance and Pastoral Care. Following a national secondment looking at new ways to measure progress and improvement in education, she spent time working in a local authority as a Quality Improvement Officer before returning to school as a Depute Head Teacher. This is her second headship.
With a particular interest in responses to Adverse Childhood Experience (ACEs), Ruth co-organised the highly successful Portobello Learning Festival on this theme in June 2018. A second Portobello Learning Festival will take place in June 2019 on the theme of ‘Changing Relationships, Changing Lives’.
Victoria Tait is Education for Sustainability Coordinator at Anglia Ruskin University in Cambridge.
As EfS coordinator, Victoria’s role is to ensure that sustainability is an integral part of both staff and students’ experiences and learning whilst at our University. Victoria works with staff to explore how sustainability links to the curriculum, and supports individual staff members to carry out a funded learning project on a sustainability themed topic of their choice.
Before joining Anglia Ruskin, Victoria spent two and a half years as a Project Manager at SEEd – a Sustainability and Environmental Education charity which helps educators to embed sustainability into young people’s learning.
Now Victoria works with our students to ensure that they feel prepared for the future and are equipped with the relevant sustainability skills. Our aim is for all students at Anglia Ruskin to be offered the opportunity to experience learning based on and around real-world issues, especially those related to environmental sustainability and social responsibility (ethics, well-being, social justice, global citizenship, moral responsibility).
Mike is joined by a former Assistant Chief Constable and a former Chief Constable this week for an extremely helpful update on what schools should be doing around Safeguarding, following some recent changes.
Mike Glanville and Martin Baker founded ‘One Team Logic‘ to provide high quality safeguarding software as a service across a wide range of organisations responsible for protecting children, young people and vulnerable adults. You may have heard or already be using their ‘My Concern’ software.
Throughout his career, Mike led on a number of critical incidents and major crime investigations involving vulnerable children and adults. He was chair of the Local Criminal Justice Board in Dorset and represented the police at the Local Children’s Safeguarding Board. Mike is also an experienced school governor and is currently Chair of Governors at a small primary school in West Dorset.
Martin’s final policing role was as the Chief Constable of Dorset Police. He was awarded HM The Queen’s Medal for Distinguished Police Service (QPM). He is also an experience school governor and a Director of a Multi-Academy Trust.
When Mike and Martin came to the end of their police careers, they wanted to continue to help everyone involved in safeguarding in schools.
“It takes a heavy toll on those people who are responsible for safeguarding if they haven’t got support to do their job and can’t support the young people that they are responsible for because they haven’t got the tools and support to be able to provide the same level of service they feel they really ought to be giving.”
Often, it can feel very lonely in a school safeguarding role because it’s not clear what information you should be sharing and with whom.
In serious case reviews over the past several years, similar themes emerge such as communication – how agencies are sharing or not sharing information with each other. This is one of the areas Mike and Martin are trying to help schools with.
September 2018 Safeguarding updates to be aware of
Ollie Frith is back this week and shares a great conversation with Chris Kilkenny.
Chris’ Twitter bio is: ‘care leaver – speaker/campaigner – passionate about equality – ACES – I am a black box for the failed system’.
Chris came himself from adverse childhood experiences and now uses his experiences to spread the word about ACES and how to take positive steps to alleviate its effects.
Chris is involved in giving keynote speeches and training around ACES. He received no qualifications and as an adult started to question why this happened. He knew he was capable of achieving qualifications so why did it happen and how could he now help other young people in the same position as him? He tries to look into his own ‘black box’ of education to find out what happened.
He attributes his ability to speak about his situation for the benefit of others partly to his character growing up in care homes. He was always loud but he was also always a good listener. He picked up words easily and was able to use them to express himself. So when his own case was being discussed at panel meetings, he was able to pick up the terminology and use it himself.
Chris says that when young people appear to be more capable or questioning adults intelligently, it can be very threatening for the adults.
When Chris turned up at the Job Centre with nothing on his CV, he pointed out to the staff that they should treat him as a blank canvas – they said that wasn’t how it worked. He had talents and skills but didn’t have them on paper.
“He believed in me even though I didn’t believe in myself”
What can schools do to support more children like David Cameron supported Chris?
Chris believes that if more teachers took just 5 minutes a day to ask a young person how they are feeling, to have a normal conversation on a human level, unconnected with school work, their lives could be transformed. This is what happened to Chris’s brother as you will hear in the episode.
“He used to talk to me like I was a human being…he remembered that I was a person.”
The power of love
Chris is open about how he feels those in education should lovetheir students. Love, care and support is what we should be offering to all young people, alongside exam results. Chris asks how we can expect young people who have never experienced a hug to be able to make meaningful human connections when they are adults. When everyone in their lives have given up on them, schools can still give them love, care and support, if they turn up.
Practical steps for schools:
Establish breakfast clubs to tackle inequality
Avoid any payments for activities – it excludes the most vulnerable – instead, get the students to fund raise in the community
Make links with local businesses – one Scottish school has teamed up with local hairdressers, bakers and butchers to support those in greatest need
Listen to Chris’ explanation in the episode for more details on how these schemes make such a difference to young people’s lives – and revolutionise relationships between schools, local communities, young people and their families.
Tara Elie is back on the podcast this week after about a year away! She speaks to Emma Brown, a Practice Development Coach working in Social Care with clients who have learning disabilities and/or Autism. She shares a great deal of her knowledge which is equally applicable to those in mainstream settings who come into contact with children with learning disabilities and/or Autism.
Emma works with the teams who support people with learning disabilities in their homes, to help them to live as independently as possible. She provides training and coaching for the teams.
Positive Behaviour Support Teams
Positive behaviour support works by measuring the function of someone’s behaviour. The data generated helps to identify the reasons for that behaviour and its patterns so we can help clients better. Often the problems Emma sees are linked to the type of support the person is receiving. It’s easy to implement interventions or support which actually exacerbate the behaviour and the Positive Behaviour Support Teams can help with identifying some of these problems.
What Positive Behaviour Support Teams look for
Emma says there are many things the teams look for:
Whether guidelines are being followed
Quality of team management
A good support worker would be somebody who perceives that the person they are supporting is equal to them and as valuable as anybody else.
Person-centred Active Support
This idea developed out of previous culture of support workers doing far too much for the clients and therefore being left with nothing to do for large amounts of the day. They became disengaged and bored.
Person-centred Active Support is about engaging people to be involved in their own lives – in meaningful activities. This could be as simple but important as taking the bins out.
Often the communication styles we favour are not the ones which work best for people with learning disabilities and/or Autism.
Speech is the most complicated way of communicating and once the sentence has come out of your mouth it no longer exists. People with Autism thrive when they have visual types of communication as well as verbal communication. We should back verbal communication up with other kinds of communication such as:
Objects of reference which are particularly good for people with severe learning dificulties
The client’s preferred method of communication can be more effectively delivered as a sequence. Emma describes a physical timetable which uses symbols which can be removed and placed in an attached container as each part of the day passes. This kind of approach improves Independence as it removes the need to ask continuously, “What’s happening next?”
How can we get children with learning disabilities and/or Autism to stop being ‘naughty’
When someone is being ‘naughty’ they are trying to communicate something.
If we can realise the behaviour is not happening for no reason, we can look at behaviour from a different standpoint. People with Autism might be struggling in a classroom situation for a wide variety of different reasons – and they may not be consistent day-to-day. Emma recommends these resources from the National Autistic Society website.
Andy Oliver was appointed as an NQT at Holte School, Lozells, Birmingham in 1998. Holte was graded ‘Outstanding’ in 2009 and 2012, is an Inclusion Quality Mark Flagship School and also recently achieved the Equalities Award.
Andy undertook a variety of pastoral posts at the school including Head of Year, Assistant Headteacher and now Deputy Headteacher. He has also been the the school’s DSL for the last 10 years.
Andy spent a year as an Acting Headteacher for a Primary School in Walsall in 2012 that had gone into Special Measures which then became ‘Good’ within 7 months. He was also part of the ‘Senior Leadership Team of the year’ in the TES Awards in 2012-2013 and recently won a Midlands Education Award for ‘Transforming Lives through Partnerships’.
In this episode we meet Andy and some of the NQTs at his school.
Holte School has just been made a Pivotal Regional Hub School. Andy tells us that when he went on his Pivotal training it wasn’t to revolutionise the behaviour management in the school because they already had an Ofsted outstanding rating. Rather, it was to help the school improve further and to change the school’s approach. Now, all senior staff have been through Pivotal training, Andy runs whole school sessions and all NQTs are inducted into the Pivotal approaches.
The school is now very positive about behaviour management and this is borne out by the comparisons in data between now and before the adoption of the Pivotal ways of working. For example, there have been 10 permanent exclusions in the past 7 years in a school which has a significant amount of behaviour challenges with gang issues in the local community and high levels of mental health problems and crime.
Andy agrees that this success is based on a whole school emphasis on warmth and kindness, right from the initial meet and greet to every lesson.
What has the school been doing with the community?
The BBC and ITV have recently been in Holte to cover the launch of a Police anti knife crime initiative. The school uses metal detecting wands a random sessions every week to ensure the school is a safe environment and this has been championed by the Police across Birmingham. The school has arranged for many outside speakers to come in and talk to the pupils about knife crime including mothers who have lost their children to knife crime and ex-gang members. University criminologists have run staff training sessions on how to divert children from the path to knife culture and the school has an excellent relationship with the Police leading to cross promotion of work. There is a confidential online reporting system for pupils and the combination of their approaches has helped them to tackle the issues.
The school has managed to create a robust, safe environment combined with their caring, kind, warm approach.
“I think that the pupils will work harder and respect people more if they see that we care about them – that we’ve got their interests at heart and that we want the best for them.”
On the basis of this work and other initiatives, Hoilte school have recently won the Midlands Education Award in the category of Transforming Lives Through Partnerships.
Holte’s NQTs: Sameya Bi, Jennifer Campbell and Christina Sutcliffe
Sameya, Jennifer and Christina all agree about the importance of setting high expectations and clear boundaries right from the start – ‘right from the door’. Once these are established, you can start to build relationships with the pupils.
What processes do you go through to keep yourselves grounded and preserve your enthusiasm?
Positive people around you are essential and at Holte there is a great support system – other NQTs, your department. Weekly NQT Programme meetings help where problems can be shared and the realisation that everyone else has similar ones, even with the same pupils is very helpful! This is particularly important because the pupils soon learn that the staff communicate and share which builds consistency.
What advice would you give to new teachers or those starting something new in September?
The NQTs have used resources which are freely available such as:
Facebook, blogs and other social media groups
Twitter – especially for sharing work and getting ideas from others
Conferences where you can meet up with those you have met on social media and concentrate on research-based practice
More tips from the NQTs:
Stay consistent – this will help you and your students who will thrive on knowing exactly what to expect
Treat each lesson as a brand new event, letting go of any baggage from the previous lesson and meeting and greeting all students with a positive tone
Always remember to follow up with pupils- have restorative conversations – approach them and talk about what went wrong
Let things go – reflect on what went wrong but then move on
a.oliver [at] holte.bham.sch.uk (formatted to avoid spam)